Open Source

An introduction to Semantic Python

An introduction to Semantic Python

A CrashCourse introduction to semantic data using Python covering a number of frameworks such as rdflib, owlready and pySHACL

Reading Time: 2 min.
Course Content: This CrashCourse is an introduction to semantic data using Python. It covers the following topics: We learn to work with RDF graphs using rdflib We explore the owlready package and OWL ontologies We look into json-ld serialization of RDF/OWL data We try data validation using pySHACL We use throughout a realistic data set based on the Credit Ratings Ontology Who Is This Course For: The course is useful to:
Non-Performing Loan Ontology

Non-Performing Loan Ontology

The NPL Ontology (NPLO) is a new ontology describing datasets of Non-Perfoming Loan Portfolios.

Reading Time: 4 min.
The Non-Perfoming Loan Ontology The Non-Performing Loan Ontology is a framework that aims to represent and categorize knowledge about non-performing loans using semantic web information technologies. Codenamed NPLO, it codifies the relationship between the various components of a Non-Performing Loan portfolio dataset.(NB: Non-performing loans are bank loans that are 90 days or more past their repayment date or that are unlikely to be repaid, for example if the borrower is facing financial difficulties).
What do people talk about at FOSDEM 2021

What do people talk about at FOSDEM 2021

FOSDEM is the Free and Open Source Software Developers European Meeting.

Reading Time: 3 min.
Introduction: What is FOSDEM? FOSDEM is a non-commercial, volunteer-organized event centered on free and open-source software development (with a geographic focus on the European open source ecosystems / projects). FOSDEM is aimed at developers and anyone interested in the free and open-source software movement. It aims to enable developers to meet and to promote the awareness and use of free and open-source software. FOSDEM is held annually since 2001, usually during the first weekend of February, at the Université Libre de Bruxelles Solbosch campus in the southeast of Brussels, Belgium.
Risk Function Ontology

Risk Function Ontology

The Risk Function Ontology (RFO) is a new ontology describing risk management roles (posts) and functions.

Reading Time: 3 min.
The Risk Function Ontology The Risk Function Ontology is a framework that aims to represent and categorize knowledge about risk management functions using semantic web information technologies. Codenamed RFO codifies the relationship between the various components of a risk management organization. Individuals, teams or even whole departments tasked with risk management exist in some shape or form in most organizations. The ontology allows the definition of risk management roles in more precise terms, which in turn can be used in a variety of contexts: towards better structured actual job descriptions, more accurate description of internal processes and easier inspection of alignement and consistency with risk taxonomies (See also live version and white paper (OpenRiskWP04_061415)
What do people talk about at FOSDEM 2020

What do people talk about at FOSDEM 2020

FOSDEM means Free and Open Source Software Developers European Meeting

Reading Time: 4 min.
Introduction: FOSDEM is a non-commercial, volunteer-organized European event centered on free and open-source software development. It is aimed at developers and anyone interested in the free and open-source software movement. It aims to enable developers to meet and to promote the awareness and use of free and open-source software. FOSDEM is held annually since 2001, usually during the first weekend of February, at the Université Libre de Bruxelles Solbosch campus in the southeast of Brussels, Belgium.
Risk Model Ontology

Risk Model Ontology

Reading Time: 2 min.
Semantic Web Technologies: The Risk Model Ontology is a framework that aims to represent and categorize knowledge about risk models using semantic web information technologies. In principle any semantic technology can be the starting point for a risk model ontology. The Open Risk Manual adopts the W3C’s Web Ontology Language (OWL). OWL is a Semantic Web language designed to represent rich and complex knowledge about things, groups of things, and relations between things.
Federated Credit Risk Models

Federated Credit Risk Models

Reading Time: 4 min.
The motivation for federated credit risk models: Federated learning is a machine learning technique that is receiving increased attention in diverse data driven application domains that have data privacy concerns. The essence of the concept is to train algorithms across decentralized servers, each holding their own local data samples, hence without the need to exchange potentially sensitive information. The construction of a common model is achieved through the exchange of derived data (gradients, parameters, weights etc).
Overview of the Julia-Python-R Universe

Overview of the Julia-Python-R Universe

We introduce a side-by-side review of the main open source ecosystems supporting the Data Science domain: Julia, Python, R, the trio sometimes abbreviated as Jupyter

Reading Time: 3 min.
Overview of the Julia-Python-R Universe: A new Open Risk Manual entry offers a side-by-side review of the main open source ecosystems supporting the Data Science domain: Julia, Python, R, sometimes abbreviated as Jupyter. Motivation A large component of Quantitative Risk Management relies on data processing and quantitative tools (aka Data Science ). In recent years open source software targeting Data Science finds increased adoption in diverse applications. The overview of the Julia-Python-R Universe article is a side by side comparison of a wide range of aspects of Python, Julia and R language ecosystems.
Open Source Securitisation

Open Source Securitisation

Reading Time: 5 min.
Open Source Securitisation: Motivation After the Great Financial Crisis securitisation has become the poster child of a financial product exhibiting complexity and opaqueness. The issues and lessons learned post-crisis were many, involving all aspects of the securitisation process, from the nature and quality of the underlying assets, the incentives of the various agents involved and the ability of investors to analyze the products they invested in. While the most egregious complications involved various types of re-securitisation and/or the interplay of structured credit derivatives undoubtedly even vanilla securitisation structure has a considerable amount of business logic.
Python versus R Language: A side by side comparison for quantitative risk modeling

Python versus R Language: A side by side comparison for quantitative risk modeling

Reading Time: 3 min.
Motivation for the comparison: A large component of risk management relies on data processing and quantitative tools. In turn, such information processing pipelines and numerical algorithms must be implemented in computer systems. Computing systems come in an extraordinary large variety but in recent years open source software finds increased adoption for diverse applications (machine learning, data science, artificial intelligence). In particular cloud computing environments are primarily based on open source projects at the systems level.
Stressing Transition Matrices

Stressing Transition Matrices

Reading Time: 1 min.
Release of version 0.4.1 of the transitionMatrix package focuses on stressing transition matrices: Further building the open source OpenCPM toolkit this realease of transitionMatrix features: Feature: Added functionality for conditioning multi-period transition matrices Training: Example calculation and visualization of conditional matrices Datasets: State space description and CGS mappings for top-6 credit rating agencies Conditional Transition Probabilities The calculation of conditional transition probabilities given an empirical transition matrix is a highly non-trivial task involving many modelling assumptions.
Release 0.4 of transitionMatrix adds Aalen-Johansen estimators and many usability enhancements

Release 0.4 of transitionMatrix adds Aalen-Johansen estimators and many usability enhancements

Reading Time: 0 min.
Release of version 0.4 of the transitionMatrix package: Further building the open source OpenCPM toolkit this realease of transitionMatrix features: Feature: Added Aalen-Johansen Duration Estimator Documentation: Major overhaul of documentation, now targeting ReadTheDocs distribution Training: Streamlining of all examples Installation: Pypi and wheel installation options Datasets: Synthetic Datasets in long format Enjoy!
Version 0.4 of the Concentration Library adds geographic / industrial concentration functionality

Version 0.4 of the Concentration Library adds geographic / industrial concentration functionality

Reading Time: 1 min.
Release of version 0.4 of the Concentration Library adds Geographic / Industrial concentration indexes: Further building out the OpenCPM set of tools, we release version 0.4 of the Concentration Library, a python library for the computation of various concentration, diversification and inequality indices. The below list provides documentation URL’s for each one of the implemented classic indexes (the Hoover index is a new addition in this release Atkinson Index Hoover Index Concentration Ratio Berger-Parker Index Herfindahl-Hirschman Index Hannah-Kay Index Gini Index Theil Index Shannon Index Generalized Entropy Index Kolm Index An important new direction that appears first in this release is the introduction of indexes that measure geographical and industrial concentration.
Release of version 0.3 of the Concentration Library

Release of version 0.3 of the Concentration Library

Reading Time: 0 min.
Release of version 0.3 of the Concentration Library: Further building out the OpenCPM set of tools, we release version 0.3 of the Concentration Library. This python library for the computation of various concentration, diversification and inequality indices. The below list provides documentation URL’s for each one of the implemented indexes Atkinson Index Concentration Ratio Berger-Parker Index Herfindahl-Hirschman Index Hannah-Kay Index Gini Index Theil Index Shannon Index Generalized Entropy Index Kolm Index The image illustrates a simple use of the library where the HHI and Gini indexes are computed and compared for a range of randomly generated portfolio exposures.
OpenCPM NPL Database

OpenCPM NPL Database

Reading Time: 2 min.
Motivation for Building an open source database based on EBA’s Standardized NPL Templates In a recent insightful piece “Overcoming non-performing loan market failures with transaction platforms”, Fell et al. dug deeply into the market failures that help perpetuate the NPL problem. They highlight, in particular, information asymmetries and the attendant costs of valuing NPL portfolios as key obstacles. In the same wavelength, the European Banking Authority published standardized NPL data templates as a step towards reducing the obstacles that prevent the reduction of NPL’s.
Four individuals that can look straight into your eyes

Four individuals that can look straight into your eyes

Reading Time: 1 min.
Four individuals that can look straight into your eyes: Here are four individuals that can look straight into your eyes Torvalds developed the #linux operating system, the software engine now powering anything from the tiniest #raspberrypi to the scariest supercomputer. Humanity’s best guarantee that the digital era remains an equal playing field Mullenweg developed the #wordpress blogging platform. Gave voice and content ownership to millions of digital authors making him the closest to the Gutenberg of our era Dougiamas developed #moodle, the world’s digital Academy.
Transition Matrix Library First Release

Transition Matrix Library First Release

Reading Time: 2 min.
Open Risk released version 0.1 of the Transition Matrix Library Motivation: State transition phenomena where a system exhibits stochastic (random) migration between well defined discrete states (see picture below for an illustration) are very common in a variety of fields. Depending on the precise specification and modelling assumptions they may go under the name of multi-state models, Markov chain models or state-space models. In financial applications a prominent example of phenomena that can be modelled using state transitions are credit rating migrations of pools of borrowers.
Transparency, standards, collaboration key to regaining trust in financial services

Transparency, standards, collaboration key to regaining trust in financial services

Reading Time: 6 min.
Transparency, collaboration key to regaining trust in financial services: In banking, confidence is the first order of business Maintaining the confidence of market participants, clients, shareholders, regulators and governments is uniquely important for the financial sector. Trust is, quite literally, the real currency. Yet it is a truism that confidence is hard to build up and rather easy to destroy. Why is this so? The short answer: The difficulty in rebuilding trust is linked to the lack of transparency.
Risk Management Internship on the Cusp of a New Financial Era

Risk Management Internship on the Cusp of a New Financial Era

Reading Time: 3 min.
Risk Management Internship: In finance, it’s the best of times, it’s the worst of times It is a special moment to start a career in financial services. We are walking amid the ruins of the previous financial order. Fallen banks, broken markets, negative interest rates, shell-shocked economies and discredited theoretical assumptions. We see the enormous cost and impact to the welfare of society of a less than perfect financial system which has not kept pace with the advancement of our general knowledge and technical capabilities in most other domains.
Open Risk is proud to be funded by the EU FIWARE FINODEX accelerator

Open Risk is proud to be funded by the EU FIWARE FINODEX accelerator

Reading Time: 2 min.
Open Risk is proud to be funded by the FIWARE FINODEX accelerator! Finodex, the European accelerator for ICT projects based on Open Data and FIWARE technologies, has already chosen over one hundred projects via two open calls for proposal. This week the results of the second call evaluation closed in last September have been published, and 52 projects from a total of 297 have been chosen by a panel of experts.